Brief History of the Electrician

With the late nineteenth century seeing developments in using electricity for residential and industrial use, along with this came the electrician for installation and maintenance. There was a rapid expansion in the use of electrical technology from this period due to the versatility of using electricity as an energy source. Electricity became a foundation and still is for modern society to advance as a civilisation. Electrical lighting was one of the first uses for domestic and commercial appliances using the flexible form of energy electricity allowed. The electrician trade was born with experts in this field taught how to install, maintain and repair the electrical infrastructure that enabled the use of lighting and other emerging electrical appliances.

Into the twentieth century electrical engineering broke into many fields in research and technology like electrical engineering or electronic engineering. The first being associated with large scale electrical systems like electrical networks power systems and the latter associated with smaller scale electronic systems like computers and small circuits. This lead to different areas of expertise for the electrician in installation, maintenance and repair including electricians specifically trained for certain appliances like TV repair. Towards the end of the twentieth century the electrician could be split into three different sections. These were divided into domestic, commercial and industrial electricians with each one having to learn particular skills to install, maintain, repair and test electrical equipment for safety. Safety became an important part of the electrician’s trade due to the risk involved not only for the electrician but for everyone involved with electrical appliances. Portable appliance testing was introduced.

The future of electricians looks to be in high demand as it’s estimated that the shortage of trained and qualified electricians stands at about 36,900 in the UK. Ways of using electric as an energy source is still diversifying with solar energy systems being installed which convert to electricity and new types of devices like electric cars being worked on. The electrician will need to break into many more fields to be able to learn his trade and use it in an efficient and safe manner.

Source by Barry Walker

Integrated Control Options for Root Knot Nematodes Part 2

Following on from Part 1 of this article where we talked about what root knot nematode (RKN) is, the symptoms and some soft options for control, in this article, we look at the rest of the tools that can be used in an integrated control strategy.

Crop Rotation with Tolerant Crops

Rotate susceptible crops, or crops which have become badly infected, with crops of brassicas such as cauliflower and cabbage or other crops such as strawberries.

Recent research has also shown that the addition of forage brassicas (a type of mustard) to the soil not only adds extra organic matter – thus helping to improve soil structure – but also helps to control nematodes and helps to prevent weed seed from germinating. The reason for this is that all brassicas produce a chemical which breaks down in wet soil to produce a cyanide-like gas. This reduces soil borne diseases (unfortunately, some good microbes too) and also helps to reduce nematodes (but does not seem to affect earthworms). There is a specific brassica known as ‘Nemcon Fumigation Brassica’ which produces higher concentrations of gas than the other brassicas.

Forage brassicas should be planted in autumn and dug in just before flowering whilst keeping the soil moist. They can be also slashed and left on the surface – although this is not quite as effective – where it is impractical to dig it in (because of pipes etc).

A wide range of other plants, produce chemicals that are antagonistic to nematodes. These include: castor bean, chrysanthemum, crotalaria, indigo, jackbean, partridge pea, sesame, sorghum-sudan and velvet bean. All of these crops can be used in rotations or mix-cropped with vegetables. Sun hemp, a tropical legume, and sorghum-sudan, a prolific grass crop plant are popular cover crops that can be grown for their nematode-suppressive properties between vegetable crops.

Soil Solarisation

Soil solarization as described by Wikipedia is “an environmentally friendly method of using solar power for controlling disease agents in the soil by mulching the soil and covering it with tarp, usually with a transparent polyethylene cover, to trap solar energy. It may also describe methods of decontaminating soil using sunlight or solar power”.

Essentially, this is a method of heating the soil so as to kill insect pests, diseases and nematodes. It is simple, cheap and effective.

Rotation and Inter-planting With Marigolds

Most varieties of marigold (Tagetes species) are resistant to RKN because their roots secrete nematicidal chemicals. Research shows that tomatoes planted 2 weeks after African marigolds were dug in showed a 99% reduction root lesion nematode (different from RKN, but a damaging nematode nonetheless). This makes marigolds an ideal rotation crop or inter-planting crop to be planted within or around your vegetable crop. Petite Harmony and Petite Yellow are known to be particularly effective.

If you want to treat a previously infected area of your veggie garden, plant your marigolds in strips or blocks within this area. You can treat a section of your veggie patch at a time. To do this, plant seed or seedlings about 15 cm (6 inches) apart and keep weeds out until the marigold plants have canopied. After flowering, remove the seed heads and keep some seed for the next crop. Removing heads will also reduce volunteers in your subsequent veggie crop. After removing the heads, incorporate the marigolds into the soil with a fork. (A fork is better than a spade, especially if you have nice populations of earthworms in your garden). You can also inter-plant your crops with marigolds which will act as a deterrent to RKN.

Destruction of Infected Roots

Where a crop has become infected, it is imperative to dig up roots and destroy them immediately after your crop is harvested. This will remove a large proportion of the nematodes which would otherwise carry over to infect the next season’s crop.

Reducing Crop Stress

Any crop which is stressed will more easily succumb to infections, not only from pests and diseases, but also from nematodes. Use mulch, water regularly and fertilise.


Use of Kelpak, to Generate Root Growth

Kelpak is a natural seaweed extract available in many countries around the world. It generates new root growth. This seaweed product can be used where an infestation has or is occurring in a crop. It does not control the nematode, but rather, it induces new root growth to compensate for loss of root mass caused by RKN. In some areas, where resistance is occurring to hardline nematacides, use of products like Kelpak, help a crop effectively overcome nematode damage and reduces yield losses.


Use of products that contain silica, such as diatomaceous earth, also help to control nematode and RKN damage. Diatomaceous earth would need to be incorporated before planting, but there are liquid silica products available that can be watered into a crop where the known risk for nematode damage is high eg tomatoes in sandy soil. If used on a regular basis throughout the crop life, such silica products will deter nematode infestation and damage and enable you to harvest a good crop.

I hope all these pointers have been a help.

Good luck!

Lucia Grimmer

Source by Lucia Grimmer

Static Dissipators and Grounding Towers For Lightning Protection

While the incidence of lightning strikes varies, virtually all populated regions have some lightning exposure hazard. Taken over the lifetime of typical tower and antenna systems, there is meaningful risk worldwide, and it makes sense to at least minimally protect facilities outside of “lightning belts”. In areas of intense lightning risk, extreme protection measures are mandatory!

The largest classes of technical structures needing lightning protection in the world today are wireless communications and broadcast towers and their antennas.

In less than 20 years, cellular mobile towers have proliferated on every continent, and are perfect lightning targets! To a lesser extent, AM, FM, and TV towers have also sprouted, sometimes sharing with cell systems. Not only are the towers at lightning risk, but also the cellular, broadcast, and communications antennas mounted on them. At risk too, are the attached cell site equipment, radio transmitters, coaxial cables, and tower light systems.

There are a wide variety of lightning air terminals in the form of lightning dissipators. Sometimes called a dissipator, or static dissipation array, this relatively new and advanced air terminal replaces conventional lightning rods in most applications. It functions as a streamer retarding air terminal.

Static dissipation array generically describes a system using point discharge phenomenon to protect towers and antennas and the area around them from a lightning strike. These function, as the name implies, by dissipating static electrical charge. Among design factors, the radius of the dissipator electrode cross-section is critical because the process which enables dissi­pation of static ground charge to the atmosphere is related to electric field intensity (and flux density) surrounding the lightning dissipator. Static dissipation arrays provide, in effect, a “low resistance” route for static ground charge to reach the atmosphere, thus preventing a build up of the ground charge to the value necessary to trigger a strike on the protected object.

Since a dissipation system must provide a low resistance path to the atmosphere, it seems logical to provide as many discharge points as reasonably possible. By using a large number of air terminal points one can compensate for any loss of efficiency from a theoretical maximum, and spread the dissipator elements over more of the cross-section area of the tower or antenna structure.

All objects have natural dissipation points. On a tower structure, charge tends to gather at, and dissipate from the tower top, antennas and antenna mounts, and from corners. The most effective way to mount a dissipator in terms of structure, weight, wind loading, cost and aesthetics is to enhance this natural dissipation by supporting the unit from the structure itself at these natural dissipation points. Since most antenna and tower structures are steel, direct attachment provides excellent conductivity. As a practical matter, the array configuration should be tailored to the structure, not vice versa.

Source by Patrick Stox

Importance of Grey Water Treatment

We all know that the water once used in bathroom sinks, laundry or shower heads are considered grey water and it contains organic material that is good for plants.

The use of this water has gained its importance due to two main factors:

1. Reducing the need of freshwater when the activity doesn’t demand it: We all know that the fresh water is scarce and is a topic of consideration in the world. The minimal use of the same can help step together in controlling the situation.

2. Eliminate waste: This water if not reused, will be passed through drains which when comes in contact with filth, garbage and trash becomes unusable and lead to the wastage of water. Grey water management can help to eliminate this wastage.How to treat this water:

The water is collected in a septic tank that is first treated for further use. Usually, the following steps are carried out in the process:

Removal of solid waste: The first step is to remove the solid waste like hair, food particles, lint, etc.

Removal of chemicals: The chemicals of soap, pathogens and other microbes is removed from the water before it is used further.

Uses of grey water:

Once treated can be used in following ways:

Big garden:

The most common and best use of grey water is to water the big garden where we need a good quantity of water. This can be done by connecting a diverter directly from the source to the garden. This is best in case of ornamental plants or trees.

For edible plants: Once treated thoroughly, it can be used to water the fruit and vegetable plants

Drought regions: In drought prone areas the grey water management served as a boom. The water is used at the maximum to eliminate the wastage and save for the need.

No garden: This type of water can be used for flushing or for Hydroponics after treatment, where kitchen vegetables could be grown.

Safety rules:

There are certain rules to be followed for using this water safely:

1: Untreated water should not be used on fruit or vegetable plants.

2: Such water when passed in the garden, should not cross the boundary to reach others premises.

3. It should not be kept untreated for long as the microbes and pathogens will multiply to dangerous levels.

4. If you are using bleach or hard chemicals in the laundry, then do not this water.

5. Keep the pipes or drains underground to keep the animals and children away from coming in contact with it.

6: Do not use grey water if you are suffering from Stomach infection.

7: Keep the pipes and taps of grey water labelled to avoid misuse.

Source by Nikhil S Jain

The Overlooked Overloaded Chakra

Chakras are believed to be energy centers in the body that both indicate and influence an individual’s physical and emotional wellbeing. One misconception that I come across quite often is that chakras are either “blocked” or “healthy.” In my experience as an energy healer, that is not true. I have encountered many instances in my practice where a chakra seems to have an excess of energy. That chakra is often neighbored by a weaker or “blocked” chakra. It is as if the person has an energetic dam in their system that is holding energy in certain chakras and not allowing it to flow adequately to others.

One solution for this that I learned from a Qi Gong Master is to run a hand over the body in the area of the two chakras in a circular motion. For instance, I often see a block between the solar plexus chakra and the heart chakra so one could rub a circle from their breastbone to their upper abdomen. This will help stimulate the energy to flow into the blocked or weakened chakra.

So how do you know if your chakra is overloaded? Well, the chakra indicates the wellbeing of the person so you can do the reverse and determine the state of your chakra by examining your wellbeing. Here are a few that focus on the psychological issues that can be related to an overloaded chakra:

  • Overloaded Root Chakra – Obsession with money, security, and possessions, difficulty with being generous, fear of change and strong dependence on routines, workaholism, hoarding, and having strict personal boundaries that interfere with being open to others.
  • Overloaded Sacral Chakra – Extreme mood swings, being overly sensitive and overreacting, addictions, emotional eating, codependency, being ruled by your feelings.
  • Overloaded Solar Plexus Chakra – Anger issues, control issues, difficulty with compromise, obsession with winning, obsession with power and status, arrogance, lack of sensitivity.
  • Overloaded Heart Chakra – Constantly putting other people’s needs before your own, codependency and clinginess in relationships, jealousy, self-neglect, feeling burnt out from all that you give.
  • Overloaded Throat Chakra – Excessive talking, talking loudly, interrupting, difficulty listening to others, speaking without thinking, speaking too bluntly
  • Overloaded Brow Chakra – Having a hard time distinguishing dreams from real life, daydreaming, feeling disconnected from reality, being too much in your head, difficulty focusing on the present.
  • Overloaded Crown Chakra – Obsession with spiritual or intellectual practices, getting caught up in thoughts, a tendency to over-intellectualize, losing track of time, feeling disconnected to the body and ungrounded.

If you are experiencing any of those issues, you likely have an overloaded chakra. Remember, life causes the chakras to go out of balance; it is not the fault of the chakra. Reiki is a very effective technique for balancing the chakras and all energy systems of the body. Meditation, breathing exercises, yoga, affirmations, and toning the chakras are also helpful tools.

Generally, for overloaded chakras, a great remedy is aerobic exercise to get the energy moving where it needs to go and to assist the body to release any unneeded energy. Just make sure that you drink plenty of water!

Source by Molly M Johnson

Why You Will Never See Magnetic Generators For Sale

You have probably already heard about the incredible new alternative energy that is magnetic electric generation. You can forget about solar power as an answer to your home power needs. A magnetic generator can completely eradicate your electricity bill not just heat your hot water! This alone is the reason why you will never see magnetic generators for sale anywhere.

Just think about that moment. Suppose there were magnetic electric generators for sale in every country around the world. You could go into any DIY store and there was a generator ready for you to take home and supply all the electricity you needed.

One of the biggest industries in the world is the supply of electricity. If everybody had the ability to produce their own electricity the world economy may very well collapse!

It sounds like a conspiracy theory but if you think about it for a moment it makes sense.

There is no way the big electricity companies would ever let that happen.

When the Australian inventors of the most well-known magnetic energy generator first unveiled it to the public, they hoped there would be magnetic generators for sale every where on the planet.

It never happened as they came up against too many obstacles. Instead they decided to sell their plans on the Internet so that anyone can build their own magnetic generator at home and there’s nothing the big electric companies can do about it!

They may be able to stop them from being sold but they can’t stop you from building your own!

Source by Joe Bleachings

The Benefits of LED Lighting

LED (light-emitting diode) lighting is different from traditional lighting, as the bulbs produce light by using semi-conductors. In a nutshell, it’s digital light.

They’re not a new phenomenon; LEDs have been used in Christmas fairy lights, remote controls and digital devices for a long time. More recently they have begun to be more widely available for lighting in the home, and have quickly become a hugely popular, energy efficient lighting solution. Here are some of the main benefits of using LED lighting:

  • LED lights are much longer lasting than other types of light bulb, and the expected life of each bulb is around 100,000 hours. If your light was on for eight hours each day, the bulb would last somewhere in the region of 20 years. As a result, the maintenance required to replace the bulbs is far less too, which can be particularly beneficial in a commercial or office environment.
  • LEDs convert approximately 80-90% of the energy they use into light making them among the most energy efficient bulbs you can buy. Traditional bulbs, on the other hand, can convert as little as 10-20% of the energy they use into light, which means the remaining 80-90% is lost as heat. This means when you choose LED bulbs you’re actually paying to light your home, rather than for the lost energy when using other, less energy efficient types of light bulb.
  • Unlike many energy saving light bulbs, with LED there’s no need to wait for the bulbs to light up fully. They emit their full light straight away. Over time, the light they give off becomes slightly less bright, but they don’t usually burn out in the same way that traditional bulbs can.
  • LED lighting only requires a low-voltage power supply, so it can easily be used in conjunction with solar energy.
  • They’re more durable and hard-wearing too, and are weather and shock resistant. They can also withstand extreme high and low temperatures far more efficiently than other bulbs, which makes them a fantastic choice for outdoor lighting.
  • LED bulbs are also more ecologically friendly than other types of bulb, as they don’t contain toxic chemicals such as mercury (which many other bulbs can) and are completely recyclable.
  • LED lights produce next to no UV emissions and very little infrared light. This makes them the ideal option for those with heightened sensitivity to UV rays or in areas containing materials where UV exposure must be minimised, such as art exhibitions and museums, for example.
  • Thanks to rapidly developing technology, LEDs are becoming much cheaper than they used to be. They’re still more expensive than other types of light bulb, but in many ways their other benefits outweigh the cost factor.

Source by Timothy Tavender

Infrared Heaters Reviews – Sun Cloud Solar Comfort KD8000 Portable Infrared Heater

Sun Cloud Solar Comfort Heaters boast having the most proven technology of providing the most reliable and safe heat on the market.

The KD8000 model comes complete with 204 improved VenturisAir ™ tubes as part of their heating process with a combination of four 375 watt infrared lamps. This technology ensures even and consistent heating from wall to ceiling.

Through testing, the Solar Comfort heater uses up to 35% less energy than a conventional furnace/baseboard system. With the costs of other sources of heat, the KD8000 provides users with the most savings.

This heater does not emit any gasses or fumes and is perfectly safe heat. Air heated by Solar Comfort does not suspend solid particles. Most of the dust and/or smoke will dissipate. It helps maintain, while not adding, humidity into the environment.

The Solar Comfort is so safe, that hazardous materials may be stored next to it without any problem. It is perfectly safe for children and pets, as well.

The heater’s efficiency is based on the distribution of energized air and water molecules. It does not depend on undependable high-speed airflow with a fan.

The infrared heater is virtually maintenance-free. Combined with the lifetime filter, the three year warranty, and the industrial infrared bulbs that are replaced with inexpensive ease, users will enjoy the Solar Comfort infrared heater in their homes for years to come.

Sun Cloud Solar Comfort KD8000 Portable Infrared Heater Features

  • Provides energy efficient, quiet operation
  • Heats up to 8x more area than other 1500W heaters
  • Offers clean heat that doesn’t remove oxygen or humidity
  • Lifetime filter
  • Heats up to 800 square feet at 1500watts
  • Nice, sturdy design that fits along beautifully with other furniture

Sun Cloud Solar Comfort KD8000 Portable Infrared Heaters Consumer Reports

Mostly, reviews for the Sun Cloud Solar Comfort Infrared heater are either positive or negative. There are not a lot of individuals who appeared feeling neutral about this product.

The positive comments included that it worked just fine, probably as other models of its kind would. Some users said that it really did save them money after several months of using it. They enjoyed the warmth it brought to the room.

The negative comments mentioned that there is no need for the thermostat dial, as the unit really just runs all the time or none of the time. They feel as though the Sun Cloud unit does not keep any room consistently warm. Customers felt that it made the room dry and that it is actually more expensive to run.

The only thing that customers agree on is that customer service leaves a lot to be desired in friendly and prompt customer service standards. There were two different users who specified that they had to return their unit in the 60 day period and that the period had run out by the time the next unit had failed them.

The users who enjoyed their ‘Sun Cloud’ experience liked most everything about the unit and is completely satisfied. With everything else, consumers must research the product they are hoping to buy to ensure that all of their needs will be met.

If the Sun Cloud Solar Comfort KD8000 is what you’re after, we recommend you buy from Amazon, as they offer free shipping on this item.

Source by Rob Tierney

The Five Elements of Green Design

Successful sustainable construction begins with a design that addresses each of the following five central elements of green building design. 

  • Sustainable Site Design
  • Water Conservation and Quality
  • Energy and Environment
  • Indoor Environmental Quality
  • Conservation of Materials and Resources 

To assure the integrity of the design and the eventual sustainable outcome, integration of green technology within each of those core design elements is critical. For example, the interrelationship between the site orientation, the water conservancy program, the use of natural energy sources, the quality of natural sunlight inside the building all affect the building’s need for materials and energy sources. In fact, the ideal design brings all the elements together over and over again.  

Integrating the design elements requires recognition of several principles of sustainability and the application of these principles to the site analysis: 

  • Reduce urban sprawl and destruction of land
  • Promote higher density urban development
  • Pursue brownfield development to save exiting green space
  • Minimize site disturbance and restore natural habitat 

Below are hints for consideration with each element. 

Sustainable Site Design 

  • Only select a new site when necessary
  • When a new site is necessary, do not chose a site that is critical to the local eco-system
  • Orient the building to on the site to utilize natural resources like solar energy
  • Select a site that allows access to mass transit
  • Minimize the building’s footprint by using existing surfaces, lightening roof color and using natural shading 

Water Conservation and Quality 

  • Realize that orientation of the proposed building that allows for natural drainage is often the least expensive way to improve the location
  • Be certain that the site assessment captures the natural hydrological attributes
  • Allow for the use of low-impact storm water retention
  • Set a water budget and implement features that help achieve the budget
  • Improve water conservation and quality by utilizing indigenous trees, plants and turf that do not require irrigation, fertilizers or pesticides 

Energy and Environment 

  • Maximize passive solar orientation
  • Reduce the need for artificial lighting by planning to use natural sunlight whenever possible
  • Use exterior insulation to maximize the performance of the exterior envelope
  • Use natural ventilation
  • Use Energy Star energy efficient appliances
  • Use new-age lighting products and settings
  • Research all the new energy technologies 

Indoor Environmental Quality 

  • Protect the building’s interior during the construction process
  • Make the building smoke-free
  • Maximize the used of daylight sunlight
  • Make sure that all interior finishes are environmentally friendly and safe
  • Design a healthy heating, cooling and ventilating system 

Materials and Resources 

  • Use engineer designed high stress materials whose strength reduces the quantity of used materials
  • Use recycled materials whenever possible
  • Use materials that can be recycled when their functional life has elapsed
  • Support the local economy and reduce the transportation of materials by using local providers of local products 

The five major elements, from sustainable sites to materials and resources are also considered in the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED building certification. Whether considering that certification or just interested in green building, the above points to consider can make a huge difference in returns, cost and the environment.

Source by Rick L. Walker

How will Biodiesel affect our lives now and the future

The world is quickly moving into a different age of energy consumption. With tensions in the Middle East growing daily, the importance of developing new fuels is becoming ever-important. When you must rely almost completely on other countries for your energy needs, many other problems arise. You then become dependent on them. Your economy can rise and fall depending on outside circumstances. No more evident is this than in looking at today’s gas prices.

Never in the history of the world have gas prices reached the highs that they are currently at. Not only does this affect each one of us individually, but the country as a whole. There are several options to overcoming this problem, but it is definitely going to take some time. One alternative is through the use of biodiesel. If you are unfamiliar with the term biodiesel, it basically is talking about vegetable oil. It is made from vegetable oil or in some cases, animal fat.

Overall, it is a much more environmentally friendly choice compared to gasoline. It burns cleaner and it is sustainable. We can continually grow more vegetables. That is never a problem. However, as far as we know, you can’t make more oil…unless of course you have a few thousand years to wait on it.

This is not a new idea by any means. The man who invented the diesel engine had in mind the ability to use peanut oil. But oil was so cheap and easy to produce in those days, it never got off the ground.

There isn’t much change needed to implement using biodiesel. If you have a diesel engine, chances are you can use it right now. Some slight modifications may be necessary, depending on the engine, but possibly not. This makes it a much more realistic alternative compared to some other fuels.

Biodiesel is still relatively unheard of in many circles. It is yet to gain mass acceptance as an alternative to oil. However, over the next few years, you’ll probably hear a lot more about it.

Biodiesel is growing quickly an a new alternative fuel. With an abundance of corn and other vegetables in the United States, consumption could increase. If gasoline goes up over $4 or $5 per gallon, expect the government to put more emphasis on these types of fuels.

There is a good chance that our lives will be drastically impacted by this form of fuel in the future. In our lifetime, we may see this become the primary source of fuel in the world. If not in our lifetime, our kids may experience it. There’s a good chance that it will become commonplace in our lives. It will improve the emissions coming from our exhaust and in turn improve the environment.

We will no longer have to rely on other countries or regions for our energy needs. We can become self-reliant by focusing more on the usage of biodiesel. More of our money will stay in the country and be used on things we’d like to spend it on. Instead of funding another 100-room mansion in Saudi Arabia, we can keep the money at home.

Source by Joseph Then